We just got our first COVID-19 vaccine. Which is a little scary since the vaccine is brand new.
But we take comfort the vaccine is free of bacteria since it is tested with a substance called LAL. But our comfort quickly vanishes when we learn LAL is made from the blood of horseshoe crabs. Whoa. Horseshoe crab blood! How can that be?
First, let’s start off with what is a horseshoe crab? And why are they described as living fossils?
First, What Is A Horseshoe Crab?
Well, they are a prehistoric-looking animal living in the shallow waters along the coast. We have one species in North America, the Atlantic horseshoe crab.
Older than dinosaurs, they have been around for 450 million years. How cool! And they are not really crabs but closer to spiders (learn about spiders in our Underdog section on “Spiders”).and scorpions.
But like so many misunderstood animals, their populations are decreasing due to overharvesting, loss of habitat and use by the medical industry. OK, tell me more.
Horseshoe Crab Blood
Is There An Alternative to Horseshoe Crab Blood?
The short answer is absolutely, but not in the United States. A number of European countries, Japan & China all use a synthetic equivalent to LAL. So why don’t we?
Well, it is complicated. For an in depth study on the subject, check out a great article published in Feb 2021: Vaccine testing is changing. Why is this 13B lab still bleeding horseshoe crabs? (The link is at the bottom under How Can We Help?)
The bottom line: we should be pushing the FDA to approve synthetic LAL. It will help save our horseshoe crabs and still provide a safe way to test our vaccines and medical equipment.
Horseshoe Crab Populations Are Declining
So how is their blood harvested and does it hurt the horseshoe crab? The crabs are caught, transported to a lab and hooked up to a machine that pierces their shell and drains 30% of their blood. Yikes, we sound like vampires! The crabs are then returned to the ocean where some (estimates range from 10-30%) die or stop reproducing.
The crabs are also harvested as bait for fishing further reducing their populations. Horseshoe crabs are now classified as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), which means they are likely to become endangered if conditions do not improve.
How Can We Help?
Horseshoe Crab blood is the key to making a COVID-19 vaccine by National Geographic